如何搞定留学Assignment中的并列结构

    今天小编和大家主要来讨论一个非常简单,但是很多留学生在assignment写作中屡见不鲜的一个语法错误现象—并列结构。

    我们来看一组句子:

    1.Junk foods may cause diabetes,heart diseases,and may make you gain weight.

    2.Some work needs to be done not quickly but precise.3.He not only finished his reading assignment but also writing an essay.

    4.He picked up his guitar,an erhu,and began to play a song.

    5.Patiently and with a smile,she told me again that she was not interested in going to my apartment to play computer games.

    6.I'd better take an umbrella,it is going to rain.

    你是否能一眼看出这些句子的问题呢?其实这些句子中都包含了并列结构。

    问题一:什么是并列结构?

    并列结构指两个或两个以上意义相关、层次相同、句法功能也相同,并由并列连词或其他并列?段连接起来的结构序列。简单来说就是英语中词和词,短语和短语,句子和句子是可以通过连接词并列在一起的。

    需要注意的是,并列的成分间必须实现grammatical balance(语法上意义上的并列)

    1.)哪些词可以并列在一起?

    上例子:

    (名词)You need to buy some chair and table.

    (动词)Tom beat and bit her.

    (形容词)She is beautiful and elegant.

    (副词)Patiently and happily,he taught me how to solve the problem.

    (数词)If you put 3 and 5 together,you’ll get 8.

    (代词)You and I need to go.

    2.)什么是短语的并列?

    上例子:

    (动词短语)He not only finished his reading assignment but also wrote an essay.

    (不不定式短语)It is easier to forgive than to hate someone.

    (动名词短语)Working out,eating organic foods,and taking a rest are the best ways to maintain good health.

    (介词短语)I studied very hard for me and for my country.

    3.)从句可不可以并列呢?

    当然可以!

    Mr.Smith,who has a good command of French and English

    but who doesn’t know Chinese,finds it difficult to study Chinese literature.

    不光这些,其实我们两个句子也是可以放到一起的。

    4.)我们常见的句与句之间的连接词有哪些呢?

    答:fanboys

    It must have rained last night,for the road is still wet.

    He is very cute,and the princess is willing to marry him.

    The city is not beautiful,nor is it clean.

    I like action movies,but she doesn’t like them.

    She has to have the operation,or she would die.

    He is thin,yet he is healthy.

    I’m busy,so I cannot go with you.

    问题二:为什么留学生在进行<a href="http://www.lxws.net/new.php?id=1463">assignment写作</a>的时候经常会在平行结构上面栽跟头呢?

    其实这涉及到了中英文两种语言的区别。

    问:如果让你用一个词概括一下中英文之间的区别,你的答案会是什么?

    答:…

    我们先来感受一下两句话:

    I think that that that that that boy wrote on the blackboard was wrong.

    枯藤老老树昏鸦,小桥流水人家,古道西风瘦马。夕阳西下,断肠人在天涯。

    问:明白了吗?

    答:......

    第一个that是连词,引导宾语从句;第二、五个that是指示代词“那个”;第三个that在这儿相当于名词;第四个that是关系代词,引起定语从句。翻译:我认为那个学生写在黑板上的那个“that”是错误的。你看懂了吗?

    我们会发现,英文是一种特别注重逻辑的语言,句子与句子一般要用连接词连起来,表达句子间的逻辑关系。

    而中文就很不一样了,诗中第一句直接把九个名词叠加放在一起,词与词的结构是平行了,但我们在这句话中甚至都找不到谓语动词,而句与句之间也不需要任何的连接词。在我们的语言中这样正确吗?不但正确,还好!!所以我们的语言从根上就没有那么注重逻辑性。

    一言以蔽之:中文是一门相对重意合的语言。有的时候感觉到了就好,并不一定需要特别严谨的逻辑关系。而英文是一门重形合的语言,相对更更重逻辑关系。而我们的学生在两种语言的转换过程中,特别是在表达两个句子间的逻辑关系的时候忽略了这一点,也就出现了文章开头的那些错误。

    现在我们再来看一下文章开头的那些句子,现在你能将它们改为正确的句子吗?

    1.Junk foods may cause diabetes,heart diseases,and may make you gain weight.

    2.Some work needs to be done not quickly but precise.He not only finished his reading assignment but also writing an essay.

    3.He picked up his guitar,an erhu,and began to play a song.

    4.Patiently and with a smile,Tom told Peter again that she was not interested in going to his apartment to play computer games.

    5.I'd better take an umbrella,it is going to rain.

    答案:

    1.Junk foods may cause diabetes,heart disease,and obesity.

    2.Some work needs to be done not quickly but precisely.He not only finished his reading assignment but also wrote an essay.

    3.He picked up his guitar,took out an erhu,and began to play a song.

    4.Patiently and Gladly,she told me again that she was not interested in going to my apartment to play computer games.

    (With patience and with a smile,she told me again that she was not interested in going to my apartment to play computer games.)

    5.I'd better take an umbrella,for it is going to rain.

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