Essay写作最常用的Paraphrase方法
      想必留学生们也知道,国外大学对于Essay写作的重复率是有要求的。如果重复率超过要求的话,就有可能会被判定为抄袭,这是非常严重的问题。而要想解决重复率的问题,就必须要使用一些方法了,而Paraphrase就是其中的一种,下面就给大家讲解一下<a href="http://www.toutiaoliuxue.com">essay写作</a>最常用的Paraphrase方法。

      方法一:同/反义词替换

      这是paraphrase最常用的方法之一,即将句子中的关键词用它的同义词或反义词来替换。

      例1:Early tech has cognitive benefits as well.

      Paraphrase:Early tech has cognitive advantages as well.

      例2:Too often these sort of efforts wind up feeling marginal or even patronizing.

      Paraphrase:Too often these sort of efforts seldom end up feeling important or appreciated.

      方法二:词性变换

      顾名思义,这种方法就是将句子中的某些词通过转换词性而达到转述的目的,比如动词换成名词词组等。

      例1:Almost 90 percent of workers do not have access to paid family leave.

      Paraphrase:Paid family leave is inaccessible to almost 90 percent of workers.

      例2:In fact,compared to paper bags,plastic grocery bags produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions.

      Paraphrase:In fact,in comparison to paper bags,plastic grocery bags produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions.

      方法三:主被动语态变换

      除了变换句子里面的某个词以外,我们还可以把句子所用的语态进行变换,主动变被动或被动变主动,以达到paraphrase的目的。

      例1:Over half of the American workforce does not have access to employer-provided personal leave.

      Paraphrase:Employer-provided personal leave is not granted to over half of the American workforce.

      例2:Such proposed development would forever destroy the wilderness character of American’s only Arctic Refuge…

      Paraphrase:The wilderness character of American’s only Arctic Refuge would be wrecked/ruined/devastated by such proposed development.

      方法四:短语从句变换

      很多句子当中,从句往往能改写成带有动词ing或ed形式的短语。这种看似复杂实则简单的变换,常常能让句子改头换面。

      例:Faces and insights reside on social media,waiting to be harvested by the digitally literate contemporary correspondent.

      Paraphrase:Facts and insights reside on social media,which need to be collected and organized by modern correspondent who is good at online technology.

      方法五:句子合并和拆分

      很多留学生为了突出自己的写作能力往往会使用长句。但这也为我们在进行句子转述的时候提供了一个思路:即将多个简单句通过从句或短语合并成一个长句,或将一个长句拆分成几个短句。

      例1:We can celebrate the democratization of media,the breakdown of monopolies,the rise of innovative means of telling stories,and the inclusion of a diversity of voices,and still ask whether the results are making us better informed.

      Paraphrase:Media is becoming more democratic;monopolies have been destroyed;innovative means of telling stories are emerging;diverse voices is included.All these phenomena should be celebrated.In the meanwhile,we should still ask whether the results are making us better informed.

      以上就是一个长句拆分成多个短句的例子。有些同学可能不理解:原文中的长句写的这么“华丽”,我为什么要把它拆成看起来没有那么“厉害”的短句呢?其实会拆分短句在Essay写作过程中很重要,因为有时候,整个句子很长,其中某些信息可能对我们无用,也就是说,我们并不需要转述整个句子,而只需提取其中的某部分信息,这个时候句子的拆分就派上用场了。

      方法六:逻辑的等价变换

      英文中的很多逻辑结构是相通的(虽然不完全一致),我们可以利用这个特点,来完成句子的转述。

      例1:让步←→对比

      Although arrests were made in this case,and two auction houses in Jerusalem canceled the sale of 126 antiquities after being contacted by Egyptian officials,the tide unfortunately flows in the other direction.

      Paraphrase:Admittedly,some heritage thieves were arrested and Egyptian government succeeded in stopping the auction of 126 antiquities in Jerusalem,but ironically the situation of heritage protection is getting even worse.

      例2:因果←→强调句

      Currently,the United States is the only industrialized nation in the world that does not provide some sort of paid leave to its workers.As a result,workers withdraw from the workforce for family and medical reasons leaving them with less income in the short run,lower chances to achieve raises and promotions,a greater reliance on social welfare programs,a reduction in Social Security benefits,and a lower accumulation of lifetime earnings.

      Paraphrase:Gillibrand asserts that it is the lack of paid leave that triggers/results in/leads to a series of profound,negative consequences for workers who withdraw from the workplace for family and medical reasons.

      温馨小提示:细心的同学们可能已经发现了,在上述的一些例句中,有部分句子不止用了一种paraphrase的方法,比如方法六中的例句1,不仅进行了逻辑上的转换,还将被动语态转换成了主动语态,同时也进行了一些同义词组的替换。在平时练习和真实考试的过程中,也建议大家对一个句子中的多处用多种方法的结合进行转述。否则转述出来的句子不仅与原文差别不大,更会给考官一种投机取巧的感觉。

      刚开始进行句子paraphrase的时候可能会比较慢,但只要我们通过科学的方法,进行一段时间的练习,相信一定会有进步的!

      以上就是六种常用的Paraphrase方法,当然,Paraphrase会比较耗时间,所以大家在写Essay的时候需要预留一些时间来进行Paraphrase.
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