英文Essay写作存在哪些修辞准则?
      留学生们在写作英文Essay时,想要写出来的Essay能达到专业水平,就必须要注意自己写作的修辞准则。可能很多留学生在<a href="http://australiaway.org/a/essaydaixie/">essay写作</a>的时候并没有注意到写作修辞,一味地想出啥就写啥,这是不行的。下面就给大家总结一下英文Essay写作的修辞准则,同学们可以好好看一下。

      不一致的问题(agreement)

      英文写作里的一致性包括:句子内、句子间以及段落内、段落间的连贯,但本段只谈英文句子内的一致性,这点原本属于文法的范畴,然而由于句子内不一致的问题在大学英文作文甚或学术Essay中都还会出现,所以不能不先提一下。经常见到的「句内一致」问题包括下列几种:

      一、主词与动词的一致

      我们一开始学英文就学过:英文里的动词型态是跟随主词而定的,与中文动词不需变化大不相同。此规则大家一般都熟知,但句子一长,或是中间有夹修饰语时,就容易忽略了。例:

      (X)It is the nationwide workers,rather than the CEO,that has taken the lead finding innovations.

      (O)It is the nationwide workers,...,that have taken the lead in finding in innovations.

      二、修饰语与被修饰语的一致

      修饰语与被修饰语如果不一致,就会造成「垂悬修饰语」(dangling modifier)的问题。例:

      (X)Containing acidic chemicals,the quality of the water at Waterfront Park is not fit for swimming in.

      (O)Containing acidic chemicals,the water at Waterfront Park is not fit for swimming in.

      三、各平行结构项目词性的一致

      英文修辞学所指的「平行」(parallel),其实就是中文写作所说的「对仗」,在英文写作里,指的是各个平行结构项目的词性必须一致。例:

      (X)Computers are commonly used for entertainment,communications,and to research.

      (O)Computers are commonly used for entertainment,communications,and research purposes.

      句子累赘(verbosity/wordiness)

      英文写作里句子要尽量简洁,下列两个句子并没有文法错误,然而可以去除累赘。例:

      The rims must fit in a perfect manner for it to be stable.

      The rims must fit perfectly for it to be stable.

      中文为母语者写英文时有一种特殊的累赘倾向,就是喜欢加上一堆不必要的开头语,例如:in terms of或in many cases,但是这些写法其实都是不必要的。例:

      In terms of behavior,there is no significant difference between the red organism and the blue organism.

      The red and blue organisms do not significantly differ in behavior.

      除了开头语之外,中文为母语者还喜欢用it is,there is之类的累赘句型。例:

      It is possible for the system to malfunction when not handled properly.The system can malfunction if not handled properly.

      说明:it is,there is之类的句子并非不能使用,但如果有更简洁的方法表达时,则应考虑写后者。以下是同句「进化」的例子:

      Regarding the application of clean energies,many proposals have been made.

      In the area of application of clean energies,many proposals have been made.

      Many proposals for the application of clean energies have been made.

      Many applications of clean energies have been proposed/

      语意不清

      语意不清是语言里的普遍现象,例如:The chairman announced that the results of the vote were in and the debate was over.此句有以下双重意义,因此,若是#1的意思就写#1;若是#2的意思就写#2。

      #1.Afterthe chairman announced the results of the vote were in,the debate was over.

      #2.Thechairman announced that the results of the vote were in and that the debate wasover.

      层次(register)不妥

      register一词在此指的是「语文的层次」,换言之,即是口语英语和书写英文的区别。将口语英语转换为书写英文的句子,最常用的方法是名词化(nominalization),亦即将包含动词的子句改成名词词组,这种变化可使句子紧密。书写比口语严谨、正式,所以专业英文偏好名词词组。例:

      (说)When he spoke against his teacher,he impressed the other students.

      (写)His argument with the teacher impressed the other students.

      然而需注意的是,不要过度名词化,有时名词词组显得做作,直接用动词则更有力:

      The intention of our partnership is the creation of innovative ideas.(名词词组)

      This partnership intends to create innovative ideas.(动词)

      主动与被动的置换

      传统上,专业写作为了显示客观性,偏好被动语气,其实,有时主动语气并不需要用到人称,如果能以非人称的主动取代被动,就可使句子紧密。例:

      (被)The sales are only a little affected by the location.

      (主)The location only slightly affects the sales.

      说明:此句中的另外一项改变是:将说话的a little改成书写的slightly,使句子正式化。如果要强调某一事物,有时还是需要使用被动语态。以下例子中画底线部分是需强调的事物:

      (主)A collision between two atoms creates a chain reaction.

      (被)A chain reaction is created by a collision between two atoms.

      因此,究竟用主动还是被动可说「存乎一心」,要看情况而定,而以把握住上述两个原则:一、简洁,二、重点,为要。

      以上诸多例子说明的是句子内部的调整方法,接下去再略谈整篇文章的一致性,包括:1)全文架构、句子间以及段落内、段落间的连贯(cohesion);2)语意的连贯(coherence)等。
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