MLA格式引用规范
      留学生们刚开始接触英文Essay的时候,一定要先了解两个概念,primary source和secondary source。文学作品本身叫做primary source,言外之意就是第一手资料,未经过别人加工过的文本,而secondary source则是加工primary source的一些文本。如果要引用这些,必须要用准确的MLA格式。

      MLA格式包括两部分:In-text citation以及essay写作完成后另起一页的Works Cited页。通过你的格式,读者可以找到你的引言是出自哪本书的哪句话。

      In-text Citation

      文章中的引用一般在括号中告诉读者引用文本的作者以及页码,如:

      Arguing that fate has little to do with the tragedy that befalls Oedipus,Bernard Knox writes that“the catastrophe of Oedipus is that he discovers his own identity;and for his discovery he is first and last responsible”(6).

      因为这边的句子里面已经讲出来是谁说的,所以括号里面不要再重复,如果句子中没说,则要在括号里写上last name+页码(Knox 6)。当然实际情况要复杂得多,比如说,引用《经济学人》杂志文章的时候,是没有作者的,引用网站文章的时候,是没有页码的,具体怎么引用,大家可以查看我们以前的文章。

      Work Cited page

      等你文章都写好之后,要另起一页,把你文章中所引用的所有情况一一列出来,比如说(注意这边是悬挂缩进):

      一般书籍的格式是:Last name,First name.Name of the book.City of publication:Publisher,year of publication.

      Plagiarism

      讲一下学术抄袭这个大罪。一般以下几种行为是被认为是抄袭行为:

      使用别人的idea或者别人的原话的时候,没有使用正确的引用格式

      在引用别人原话的时候,没有加双引号

      在总结或者同意转述的时候,没有使用自己的语言

      大家看一下,下面是一个抄袭的例子:

      原文:

      Here again Glaspell’s story reflects a larger truth about the lives of rural women.Their isolation induced madness in many.The rate of insanity in rural areas,especially for women,was a much-discussed subject in the second half of the nineteenth century.

      —Elaine Hedges,“Small Things Reconsidered:‘A Jury of Her Peers,’”p.59

      如果你这么写就是抄袭(下划线的部分必须要加双引号!):

      Glaspell may or may not want us to believe that Minnie Wright’s murder of her husband is an insane act,but Minnie’s loneliness and isolation certainly could have driven her mad.As Elaine Hedges notes,the rate of insanity in rural areas,especially for women,was a much-discussed subject in the second half of the nineteenth century(59).

      再来看一个例子:

      原文:

      Mothers[in the late nineteenth century]were advised to teach their daughters to make small,exact stitches,not only for durability but as a way of instilling habits of patience,neatness,and diligence.But such stitches also became a badge of one’s needlework skill,a source of self-esteem and of status,through the recognition and admiration of other women.

      —Elaine Hedges,“Small Things Reconsidered:‘A Jury of Her Peers,’”p.62

      如果你这么写就是抄袭(和原文用词、句式重复度太高!):

      One of the fìnal clues in the story,the irregular stitching in Minnie’s quilt patches,connects immediately with Mrs.Hale and Mrs.Peters.In the late nineteenth century,explains Elaine Hedges,small,exact stitches were valued not only for their durability.They became a badge of one’s prowess with the needle,a source of self-respect and of prestige,through the recognition and approval of other women(62).

      但是按照下面这样写就不会被认定为抄袭(同意转述程度要高!):

      One of the final clues in the story,the irregular stitching in Minnie’s quilt patches,connects immediately with Mrs.Hale and Mrs.Peters.In the late nineteenth century,explains Elaine Hedges,precise needlework was valued for more than its durability.It was a source of pride to women,a way of gaining status in the community of other women(62).

      以上就是关于<a href="http://www.baydue.com/news/writingskills/362.html">MLA格式</a>的引用规范,同学们在引用别人的文章或观点的时候一定要注意这些细节。
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