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PTE写作---Summarize Written Text例题解析

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这是一道SWT的例题,先来看题做做看吧!

Question:

?In a paper published in Nature Energy today, Roger Fouquet of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at LSE cautions that while investment in large energy projects might provide accessible cheap energy in the short-term, it also risks locking those economies into pathways that may prove detrimental to the country's longer term prosperity.

Economic development, the paper states, needs access to cheap energy services, just as it needs cheap capital and labour. But while large energy projects and subsidies can initially provide a low-priced energy service, cheap energy also tends to lock economies into energy-intensive patterns related to technologies, infrastructures, institutions, and behaviour that are likely to be detrimental to the economy in the long run, increasing the economy's vulnerability to energy price shocks, inflation, trade balance deficits, political pressures from energy companies and environmental pollution.

Care should therefore be taken before embarking on large scale projects and policies that leave an economy heavily in debt and offer little growth and development, the paper cautions.

A better understanding of path dependence in energy systems is critical and urgent for two reasons, Dr Fouquet argues. First, current efforts to stabilise the climate require unlocking industrialised economies from their existing fossil fuel energy systems. Second, developing countries are still in the process of industrialisation, which is typically a time of heavy investment that creates lock-ins and ultimately dependence on one set pathway. It is therefore critical that the risks are better understood, their implications identified and strategies developed to deal with this issue before these economies find themselves locked into costly energy schemes.

Roger Fouquet, Associate Professorial Research Fellow at the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, said: “Once an economy is locked-into an energy system, the government rarely has opportunities to redirect it, so it is crucial for long-term prosperity that an economy gets on the 'right' path before it is fully locked-in. Not only will this have economic benefits, but it's likely to reduce the costs of meeting global environmental regulation that will, no doubt, eventually be pressed on even the least developed economies. So industrialising economies may want to avoid locking themselves into this antiquated energy system altogether.”

这段话非常长,如何把它总结成一句75个字以内的话呢?在做的过程中,大家可以思考一下它的关键点在哪里。需要复习SWT做题三字口诀的同学戳这边的链接复习:Summarize Written Text一个口诀轻松搞定

接下来我们就来逐段的解析,看看到底哪些是在Summary当中必须包含的内容。

解析:

In a paper published in Nature Energy today, Roger Fouquet of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment at LSE cautions that while investment in large energy projects might provide accessible cheap energy in the short-term, it also risks locking those economies into pathways that may prove detrimental to the country's longer term prosperity.

【这段中,我们可以通过连接词迅速定位。While在文中意味着一种转折,因此政府投资的短期利益并不是文章的重点。换言之,这篇文章的重点应该在下划线的句子,也就是长远意义上的代价。提供的核心关键词:Development of economy, Energy scheme, Short-term and long-term, Detrimental effects】

Economic development, the paper states, needs access to cheap energy services, just as it needs cheap capital and labour. But while large energy projects and subsidies can initially provide a low-priced energy service, cheap energy also tends to lock economies into energy-intensive patterns related to technologies, infrastructures, institutions, and behaviour that are likely to be detrimental to the economy in the long run, increasing the economy's vulnerability to energy price shocks, inflation, trade balance deficits, political pressures from energy companies and environmental pollution.

【第二句的But是一个很明确的指引,告诉我们这句话比较重要。其次,我们可以仔细看一下句子的结构,依然是While引导的一个转折,因此下划线的部分是整段的核心。意思其实跟第一段非常类似,尽管使用这些能源项目可以短时间内降低能源的成本,但这些能源会带来很严重的后果。之后修饰的部分,比如说related to technologies, infrastructures, institutions and behaviour这些,都不重要。这里的关键词是:Energy scheme, energy intensive patterns, detrimental, vulnerability】

Care should therefore be taken before embarking on large scale projects and policies that leave an economy heavily in debt and offer little growth and development, the paper cautions.

【这段是一个承上启下的段落,其实很关键,甚至可以说这句话里面已经包含了这篇文章最主要的意图。但由于这是一个总结,句子本身并不会给我们提供更多关键词。】

A better understanding of path dependence in energy systems is critical and urgent for two reasons, Dr Fouquet argues. First, current efforts to stabilise the climate require unlocking industrialised economies from their existing fossil fuel energy systems. Second, developing countries are still in the process of industrialisation, which is typically a time of heavy investment that creates lock-ins and ultimately dependence on one set pathway. It is therefore critical that the risks are better understood, their implications identified and strategies developed to deal with this issue before these economies find themselves locked into costly energy schemes.

【这段话的Signposting非常明确,First和Second都是很清楚地告诉我们这里有两个比较重要的信息点。其次,后面的Therefore也是一个提示,告诉我们这里会给出总结。这段中的关键词有以下这些:stabilise the climate, industrialisation, understand the risk, identify the implications, develop strategies】

Roger Fouquet, Associate Professorial Research Fellow at the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, said: “Once an economy is locked-into an energy system, the government rarely has opportunities to redirect it, so it is crucial for long-term prosperity that an economy gets on the 'right' path before it is fully locked-in. Not only will this have economic benefits, but it's likely to reduce the costs of meeting global environmental regulation that will, no doubt, eventually be pressed on even the least developed economies. So industrialising economies may want to avoid locking themselves into this antiquated energy system altogether.”

【最后这一段基本是在讲述一个专家的观点,在这里是作为例子去使用的。因此,这篇文章里,这段话基本可以忽略不计,也不需要刻意地去寻找关键词。这段文字的意思跟之前也是差不多的,主要是说国家需要作出正确的选择,认真地考虑使用能源的后果。】

参考答案:

The investment of cheap energy may be desirable for the development of economy in the short-term, but have to suffer long-term consequences by increasing its vulnerability, and therefore decision makers need to better understand the dependency of energy in relation to climate change and industrialisation before making any rational choices.

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